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The Arab Republic of Egypt is a republic governed by an elected president and bicameral legislature, according to its constitution. The upper house reconstituted in 2020 as the Senate after a six-year absence. Presidential elections were held in 2018
  • challengers to incumbent President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi withdrew ahead of the election, citing personal decisions, political pressure, legal troubles, and unfair competition; in some cases they were arrested. Domestic and international organizations expressed concern that government limitations on association, assembly, and expression severely constrained broad participation in the political process. Domestic and international observers said government authorities professionally administered parliamentary elections in accordance with the country's laws and that the results were credible. Observers noted restrictions on freedom of peaceful assembly, political association, and expression significantly inhibited the political climate surrounding the elections. Government failed to consistently punish or prosecute officials who committed abuses, in the security services or elsewhere in the government, including corruptions. In most cases, the government did not comprehensively investigate allegations of human rights abuses, including most incidents of violence by security forces, contributing to an environment of impunity.

The overall score indicates that severe violations of human rights happen in this country. Compliance with human rights standards cannot be assumed. Very high caution should be exercised. Relevant risks for the tourism sector are, e.g.:
  • Threats of violence against LGBTQI+ persons or use of the law to arrest and prosecute arbitrarily such persons
  • Serious restrictions on free expression, media and internet
  • Substantial interference with the freedom of peaceful assembly and freedom of association, including overly restrictive laws on the organization, funding, or operation of NGOs and civil society organizations
Tier 2